Genus Xylaria Hill ex Schrank

Baierische Flora 1: 200 (1789)

Type: Xylaria hypoxylon (L.) Grev., Flora Edinensis: 355 (1824)

Identification of species is best done with the aid of a hand lens or dissecting scope for viewing surface morphology and a microscope for measuring spores and germ slits.

Species confirmed for Chicago Region.

  1. Xylaria acuta
  2. Xylaria cornu-damae
  3. Xylaria longiana
  4. Xylaria longipes
  5. Xylaria polymorpha
  6. Xylocoremium flabelliforme, anamorph of Xylaria cubensis but that sexual stage not yet found here.

Status of species from older collections for Chicago Region.

  1. Xylaria corniformis, = ?
  2. Xylaria digitata, = ?
  3. Xylaria filiformis, = ?
  4. Xylaria hypoxylon, Excluded from E. USA, see X. longiana, X. vasconica, and others.
  5. Xylaria multiplex, = ?
The west coast form of Xylaria hypoxylon could be considered a variety or a separate species from the European species. NOTE: the papers earlier than 2009 have the wrong concept for Xylaria hypoxylon. See Persoh et al. (2009) for corrected concept of Xylaria hypoxylon, and see Fournier et al. (2011) for X. vasconica in eastern USA.
Related links:
Callan, B. E., J. D. Rogers. 1990. Teleomorph-anamorph connections and correlations in some Xylaria species. Mycotaxon 36: 343–369.
Callan, B. E., J. D. Rogers. 1993. A synoptic key to Xylaria species from continental United States and Canada based on cultural and anamorphic features. Mycotaxon 46: 141-154.
Fournier, J., F. Flessa, D. Peršoh, M. Stadler. 2011. Three new Xylaria species from southwestern Europe. Mycological Progress 10(1): 33–52. (also four supplemental files)
Læssøe, T. 1992. Xylaria digitata – delimitation and typification—I. Persoonia 14: 603–613. PDF.
Læssøe, T. 1993. Xylaria digitata – delimitation and typification—II. Persoonia 15: 149–153. PDF.
Laessoe, T., D. J. Lodge. 1994. Three host-specific Xylaria species. Mycologia 86: 436-446.
Peršoh, D., M. Melcher, K. Graf, J. Fournier, M. Stadler, G. Rambold. 2009. Molecular and morphological evidence for the delimitation of Xylaria hypoxylon. Mycologia 101(2): 256-68.
Rogers, J. D. 1979. Xylaria magnoliae sp. nov. and comments on several other fruit-inhabiting species. Canadian Journal of Botany 57: 941-945.
Rogers, J. D. 1983. Xylaria bulbosa, Xylaria curta, and Xylaria longipes in Continental United States. Mycologia 75(3): 457-467.
Rogers, J. D. 1984. Xylaria acuta, Xylaria cornu-damae, and Xylaria mali in Continental United States. Mycologia 76(1): 23-33.
Rogers, J. D. 1984. Xylaria cubensis and its anamorph Xylocoremium flabelliforme, Xylaria allantoidea, and Xylaria poitei in continental United States. Mycologia 76: 912-923.
Rogers, J. D. 1986. Provisional keys to Xylaria species in continental United States. Mycotaxon 26: 85–97.
Rogers, J. D., B. E. Callan. 1986. Xylaria polymorpha and its allies in continental United States. Mycologia 78: 391-400.
Rogers, J. D., A.N. Miller, L. N. Vasilyeva. 2008. Pyrenomycetes of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. VI. Kretzchmaria, Nemania, Rosellinia and Xylaria (Xylariaceae). Fungal Diversity 29: 107-116 ; PDF.
San Martin, F., P. Lavin, J. D. Rogers. 2001. Some species of Xylaria (Hymenoascomycetes, Xylariaceae) associated with oaks in Mexico. Mycotaxon 79: 337-360.
Stadler, M., E. Kuhnert, D. Peršoh, J. Fournier. 2013. The Xylariaceae as model example for a unified nomenclature following the One Fungus-One Name (1F1N) concept. Mycology 4(1): 5-21.
Vincent, M. A., K. Metcalf. 2006. Fairy Sparklers (Xylaria tentaculata, Xylariaceae), a rarely seen fungus in Ohio. The Michigan Botanist 45(4): 2007-2009.
Michael Kuo, The Genus Xylaria.
Taxon links:
5832 MycoBank ; Index Fungorum