Order Agaricales Underw.

Moulds, mildews and mushrooms: 97 (1899)

Type: Agaricus L. 1753

This is a large group of mushrooms containing many families. About a third of the Chicago Region macrofungi are in this order. The majority of these are gilled mushrooms but there are also puffballs and some other reduced forms. Some coral fungi and others are here at the base of the order. Many genera lacking representatives in the Chicago Region are not listed below (for other genera see the papers linked below). The traditional families are being reworked. The continuing work of DNA phylogenies sorts them out into the following clades (related groups). Much of the outline below is based on interpretation of Matheny et al. (2006) though there may be a few errors on my part. There are likely some rearrangements in recent years. The Tricholomatoid clade outline below follows Sánchez-García et al. (2014), though they apparently excluded the Mycenaceae and Infundibulicybe.

  1. agaricoid clade
    • Agaricaceae (Agaricus, Calvatia, Chlorophyllum, Coprinus, Langermannia, Lepiota, Leucoagaricus, Lycoperdon, Macrolepiota, Melanophyllum, Tulostoma)
    • Bolbitiaceae (Bolbitius, Conocybe, Pholiotina)
    • Cortinariaceae in strict sense (Cortinarius)
    • Crepidotaceae (Crepidotus, Simocybe)
    • Cystodermateae in strict sense (Cystoderma)
    • Gymnopileae (Gymnopilus)
    • Hydnangiaceae (Laccaria)
    • Hymenogasteraceae (Galerina, Hebeloma)
    • Inocybaceae (Inocybe)
    • Nidulariaceae (Crucibulum, Cyathus)
    • Panaeoleae (Panaeolina, Panaeolus)
    • Psathyrellaceae (Coprinellus, Coprinopsis, Lacrymaria, Psathyrella)
    • Strophariaceae in strict sense (Agrocybe, Hypholoma, Pholiota, Stropharia)
    • Tubarieae (Cyclocybe erebia, Phaeomarasmius, Tubaria)
  2. tricholomatoid clade
    • Entolomataceae (Clitopilus, Entoloma)
    • Lyophyllaceae (Asterophora, Calocybe, Lyophyllum, Ossicaulis)
    • Tricholomataceae in strict sense (Leucopaxillus, Tricholoma)
    • Catathelasma clade (Callistosporium)
    • Residual groups: Aspropaxillus; Clitocybe in strict sense (with Collybia, Lepista); Clitocybe in part; Pseudoclitocybe
  3. uncertain internal or external to tricholomatoid clade
    • Infundibulicybe
    • Mycenaceae (Mycena, Panellus, Prunulus, Resinomycena)
  4. marasmioid clade
    • Cyphellaceae in strict sense (Baeospora, Cheimonophyllum, Chondrostereum)
    • Fistulinaceae (Fistulina, Porodisculus)
    • hydropoid clade (Clitocybula, Megacollybia)
    • Marasmiaceae (Crinipellis, Henningsomyces, Marasmius)
    • Niaceae (Cyphellopsis or Merismodes)
    • Omphalotaceae (Gymnopus, Lentinula, Mycetinis, Omphalotus, Rhodocollybia, Tetrapyrgos)
    • Physalacriaceae (Armillaria, Cyptotrama, Flammulina, Hymenopellis)
    • Schizophyllaceae (Schizophyllum)
  5. uncertain placement
    • Amanitaceae (Amanita, Limacella)
    • Macrocystidiaceae (Macrocystidia)
    • Pleurotaceae (Hohenbuehelia, Pleurotus, Resupinatus)
    • Tricholomopsis
  6. pluteoid clade
    • Melanoleuca
    • Pluteaceae (Pluteus, Volvariella, Volvopluteus)
  7. hygrophoroid clade
    • Hygrophoraceae in broad sense (Ampulloclitocybe, Camarophyllus, Cuphophyllus, Gliophorus, Hygrocybe, Hygrophorus, Pseudoarmillariella)
    • Pterulaceae
    • Typhulaceae
    • Phyllotopsis
    • Sarcomyxa
    • Xeromphalina
  8. unclear placement (basal)
    • Clavariaceae in strict sense (with Clavaria, Clavulinopsis)
The old concepts and families based on macro- and micro-morphology, spore print color, are shown in many cases to be artificial. More work is needed to outline revised family boundaries and clarify relationships. The Plicaturopsidoid clade of Matheny et al. (2006) which was basal in their Agaricales is now split with one part excluded and going to the Amylocorticiales (includes Plicaturopsis) while the other part, the Clavariaceae (in strict sense with Clavaria, Clavulinopsis), remains in the Agaricales (see Birkebak et al. 2013). See Sánchez-García et al. (2014) for recent work on delimiting the family Tricholomataceae.
Related links:
Birkebak et al. 2013. A systematic, morphological and ecological overview of the Clavariaceae (Agaricales) Mycologia 105(4): 896-911.
Hibbett, D. S., R. Bauer, M. Binder, A.J. Giachini, K. Hosaka, A. Justo, E. Larsson, K.H. Larsson, J.D. Lawrey, O. Miettinen, L. Nagy, R.H. Nilsson, M. Weiss, and R.G. Thorn. 2014. Agaricomycetes. Pp. 373–429 In: Systematics and Evolution, Second Edition, The Mycota VII Part A. (D. J. McLaughlin and J. W. Spatafora, Eds.), Springer Verlag. [Chapter 14 and complete volume PDF at Hibbett Lab Publications.]
Matheny et al. 2006. Major clades of Agaricales: a multilocus phylogenetic overview Mycologia 98(6): 982-995.
Sánchez-García et al. 2014. Deconstructing the Tricholomataceae (Agaricales) and introduction of the new genera Albomagister, Corneriella, Pogonoloma and Pseudotricholoma. Taxon. 63(5): 993-1007. Free PDF from TreeSearch
Tree of Life (2007) ; Wikipedia.
Taxon links:
90508 MycoBank ; Index Fungorum