Order Cantharellales Gäum.

Vergleichende Morphologie der Pilze: 495 (1926)

Type: Cantharellus Juss. 1789

This is one of the basal groups of mushroom-forming fungi. Two to eight spores are produced per basidium. The notable ultrastructural character (seen with electron microscope) is that most members show stichic basidia, which means that the first meiotic division takes place in the middle of the basidium with the spindle parallel to the long axis of the basidium. The other type known as chiastic basidia, shown by euagarics (true agarics), has the first meiotic division at the apex of the basidium with the spindle transverse (crosswise) to the long axis of the basidium.

This order contains several growth forms including chanterelles, corals, toothed fungi, and crusts. Below are the families and some of the three dozen genera for this order (some are not known for Chicago Region).

  1. Botryobasidiaceae (Allescheriella, Botryobasidium, Botryohypochnus)
  2. Cantharellaceae (Cantharellus, Craterellus)
  3. Ceratobasidiaceae (Ceratobasidium), previously in heterobasidiomycetes
  4. Clavulinaceae (Clavulina, Membranomyces, Multiclavula)
  5. Hydnaceae (Hydnum [Dentinum], Sistotrema in the strict sense with S. confluens)
  6. Tulasnellaceae (Tulasnella), previously in heterobasidiomycetes
The DNA phylogenetic work of Hibbett et al. (1997) was the first to show some of the genera related to the chanterelles. Moncalvo et al. (2006) further delimited the members of the clade and it was their opinion that Sebacinales do not belong to this clade. Sistotrema (in the broad sense) is polyphyletic within Cantharellales. It is likely the families will be revised.
Aphelaria was classified in the Aphelariaceae as part of Cantharellales, and still listed as such in Mycobank and Index Fungorum as of April 2015, but that genus or family is not in recent DNA studies of the order. Aphelariaceae has suffered as a family concept with Cotylidia moving to Hymenochaetales and Hydnopolyporus transfered to Polyporales. I cannot find a DNA phylogeny that includes Aphelaria.
Hibbett et al. (2014, p. 388) gives Cantharellaceae and Clavulinaceae as synonyms under Hydnaceae, and state that this (enlarged) family has these three lineages containing mycorrhizal species. They present no argument for combining the families and there is no nomenclatural attempt for an emendation of Hydnaceae. They refer to Moncalvo et al. (2006) and Veldre et al. (2013), saying: These studies support a division of Cantharellales into four families, which may be defined by septal pore structure and secondary spore production. This seems to be their own interpretation of the data; neither paper discussed family delimitations in this sense. Moncalvo et al. (2006) discussed seven clades and groups that align with the six families listed above (with Multiclavula being sister group to ClavulinaMembranomyces). Veldre et al. (2013) focused on the Ceratobasidiaceae, poorly covering the other groups yet labeling the five other families in their phylogram.
Related links:
Hibbett, D. S., E. M. Pine, E. Langer, G. Langer, and M. J. Donoghue. 1997. Evolution of gilled mushrooms and puffballs inferred from ribosomal DNA sequences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 94: 12002-12006. [PDF at Hibbett Lab Publications.]
Hibbett, D. S., R. Bauer, M. Binder, A.J. Giachini, K. Hosaka, A. Justo, E. Larsson, K.H. Larsson, J.D. Lawrey, O. Miettinen, L. Nagy, R.H. Nilsson, M. Weiss, and R.G. Thorn. 2014. Agaricomycetes. Pp. 373–429 In: Systematics and Evolution, Second Edition, The Mycota VII Part A. (D. J. McLaughlin and J. W. Spatafora, Eds.), Springer Verlag. [Chapter 14 and complete volume PDF at Hibbett Lab Publications.]
Moncalvo et al. 2006. The cantharelloid clade: dealing with incongruent gene trees and phylogenetic reconstruction methods. Mycologia 98(6): 937–948.
Veldre V. et al. 2013. Evolution of nutritional modes of Ceratobasidiaceae (Cantharellales, Basidiomycota) as revealed from publicly available ITS sequences. Fungal Ecology 6(4): 256–268. [Science Direct; Research Gate.]
For more on meiosis and spore formation see Google books - Page 143: Hibbett, D. S. and R.G. Thorn. 2001. Homobasidiomycetes. Pp. 121–170 In: Systematics and Evolution, The Mycota VII Part B. (D. J. McLaughlin, E. G. McLaughlin and P. A. Lemke, Eds.), Springer Verlag.
Tree of Life (2008) ; Wikipedia.
Taxon links:
90531 MycoBank ; Index Fungorum