Order Phallales E. Fischer

Die Naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien 1(1**): 276 (1898)

Type: Phallus Junius ex L. 1753

This order contains the infamous stinkhorns and related fungi. The order was expanded to include various sequestrate types (gasteroid agarics). The multi-gene analysis of Hosaka et al. (2006) showed six monophyletic families. The fruitbody is often gelatinous in part with a gelatinous to mucilaginous gleba (spore mass). All or most members appear to be saprobes. Flies and other arthropods are the primary or only method for spore dispersal. There are about 29 genera and 100 species. There will be additions from the tropics. The species names given below are the type species for their respective genera. There are additional genera in the order but I have not seen their arrangement in a phylogeny. Mutinus and Phallus can be found in the Chicago area.

  1. Clathraceae
    • Anthurus muellerianus Kalchbr. 1880
    • Aseroë rubra Labill. 1800
    • Clathrus ruber P. Micheli ex Pers. 1801
    • Ileodictyon cibarium Tul. ex M. Raoul 1844
    • Laternea triscapa Turpin 1822
  2. Claustulaceae
    • Claustula fischeri K.M. Curtis 1926
    • Gelopellis macrospora Zeller 1939
    • Kjeldsenia aureispora W. Colgan, Castellano & Bougher 1995
    • Phlebogaster laurisylvicola Fogel 1980
  3. Lysuraceae
    • Lysurus mokusin (L.) Fr. 1823
    • Simblum periphragmoides Klotzsch 1831
  4. Phallaceae
    • Mutinus caninus (Huds.) Fr. 1849
    • Phallus impudicus L. 1753 [includes Dictyophora]
  5. Protophallaceae
    • Kobayasia nipponica (Kobayasi) S. Imai & A. Kawam. 1958
    • Protophallus jamaicensis Murrill 1910 [Protubera in part]
  6. Trappeaceae
    • Phallobata alba G. Cunn. 1926
    • Trappea darkeri (Zeller) Castellano 1990
In some treatments the Gomphales are lumped into the Phallales. They are sister groups in the gomphoid-phalloid clade. The genus Protubera is polyphletic with species scattered in 3 families of Phallales but the true Protubera in the strict sense (based on its type species) is in Hysterangiales. The reverse is true of Trappea, with species in Hysterangiales but the type species here in Phallales.
Related links:
Hibbett, D. S., R. Bauer, M. Binder, A.J. Giachini, K. Hosaka, A. Justo, E. Larsson, K.H. Larsson, J.D. Lawrey, O. Miettinen, L. Nagy, R.H. Nilsson, M. Weiss, and R.G. Thorn. 2014. Agaricomycetes. Pp. 373–429 In: Systematics and Evolution, Second Edition, The Mycota VII Part A. (D. J. McLaughlin and J. W. Spatafora, Eds.), Springer Verlag. [Chapter 14 and complete volume PDF at Hibbett Lab Publications.]
Hosaka, K. S. T. Bates, R. E. Beever, M. A. Castellano, W. Colgan III, L. S. Domínguez, E. R. Nouhra, J. Geml, A. J. Giachini, S. R. Kenney, N. B. Simpson, J. W. Spatafora, J. M. Trappe. 2006. Molecular phylogenetics of the gomphoid-phalloid fungi with an establishment of the new subclass Phallomycetidae and two new orders. Mycologia 98(6): 949-959
Tree of Life (2007) ; Wikipedia.
Taxon links:
90562 MycoBank ; Index Fungorum